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第三辑:Student Autonomy
来源:教育科学研究院  发布时间:2013-06-16 00:00:00  点击:222

THE THIRD SESSION: Student Autonomy in Education

1. Devoid of Community: Examining Conceptions of Autonomy in Education

Author(s): Donald Kerr

Source: Educational Theory, Winter 2002, Volume 52, No. 1, pages13-25.

Prelude: Autonomy is central to the liberal theory that underpins the provision of public education in democracies: a regard for autonomy is intrinsic to such important liberal values as freedom, rights, democracy, legitimacy, justice, and some versions of equality. And a belief in the right of all to participate in democratic life, and to be able to choose for oneself—at least in some sense—how to live one’s own life, that is, what constitutes a good life and to pursue it, is a prime justification of education. It is therefore important that we have an understanding of just what we mean by the concept of autonomy, how it impings upon our other liberal values, and what demands it places on education and educators in liberal democracies.



2. Strong Autonomy and Education

Author(s): Christopher Winch

Source: Educational Theory, Winter 2002, Volume 52, No. 1, pages27-41

Prelude: It is commonplace in liberal political philosophy that the individual self-determination of ends in life is a condition of individual flourishing in liberal, democratic, market-oriented societies. Furthermore, it is almost universally acknowledged that education has a critical role in promoting this individual self-determination, otherwise known as “autonomy.” It follows that, for nearly all educational thinkers in the liberal-democratic tradition, preparation for autonomy is an overarching educational aim. But how important is autonomy relative to other goods and what kind of autonomy can reasonably be developed by an education system? Most philosophers of education have taken it for granted that this should, in a just polity, be “strong” autonomy, or the view that individuals should be able to make life-choices that are not necessarily endorsed by the society around them.



3. Indoctrination, Moral Instruction, and Nonrational Beliefs: A Place for Autonomy?

Author(s): Michael S. Merry

Source: Educational Theory, Volume 54, No. 4, 2005, pages399-420.

Introduction: The manner in which individuals hold various nonevidentiary beliefs is critical to making any evaluative claim regarding an individual’s autonomy. In this essay, I argue that one may be both justified in holding nonrational beliefs of a nonevidentiary sort while also being capable of leading an autonomous life. I defend the idea that moral instruction, including that which concerns explicitly religious content, may justifiably constitute a set of commitments upon which rationality and autonomy are dependent. I situate this discussion against the backdrop of a minimalist notion of autonomy. I then consider the case for nonrational beliefs, examining the difference between those whose content is objectionable on evidentiary grounds and those that are immune to verification. Next, I consider the indoctrination/moral instruction distinction through examining the various ways in whichindoctrination is defined. I also consider the role that value coherence plays in shaping our identities, paying particular attention to fundamental commitments as defined by our respective families, cultures, and communities. Finally, I argue that individual psychology is central to our ability to assess the outcome of an upbringing purported to be indoctrinatory, and I emphasize the important role that experience and agency play in enabling us to evaluate our beliefs.



4. On Having One’s Chance: Autonomy as Education’s Limit

Author(s): Alice Pitt

Source: Educational Theory, Volume 60, No. 1, 2010, pages 1-18.

Introduction: When hopelessness and helplessness become recurring themes in teacher education scholarship, this signals a conceptual problem with the question of autonomy in the profession. In this essay, Alice Pitt argues that breakdowns of professional life belong to what is most subjective in the profession. Pitt opens her analysis of this conundrum by examining some earlier formulations of the problem of learning a profession. Next, she explores four orientations to the role of education in modern life and examines an interview with a beginning teacher as a way to think about autonomy in its emotional as well as rational qualities. A reconfigured autonomy suggests that education is more than a site of the failure of the Enlightenment promise to advance reason’s dominance in the organization of social life. Education, in its professional, practical, and experiential realms, reveals the dynamic qualities of the limits of reason, according to Pitt. She concludes that a constitutive alterity at the heart of the educational project renders the profession a significant site for ongoing investigation of the human condition and the play of autonomy.

5. Autonomy? or Responsibility?

Author(s): Barbara S. Stengel

Source: Educational Theory, Volume 60, No. 1, 2010, pages 19-28.

Introduction: The problematic of autonomy is an important one that commands the attention of those with a hand in teacher education and school leadership, but especially the attention of those who claim membership in the professional community of teachers. We know, anecdotally and empirically, that new teachers flourish only in communities with ‘‘integrated professional cultures.’’ In such communities, there is ‘‘frequent and reciprocal interaction among faculty members across experience levels,’’ new teachers’ needs as beginners are recognized, and all teachers, new and experienced, take shared responsibility for the school and its success. The focus, it seems to me, is not autonomy but the ability, the capacity, to respond: to each other, to one’s students and their parents, and to the public articulation of educational needs and goals. Pitt clearly calls us to acknowledge that reason alone cannot support responsibility, that is, the recognition of the ‘‘constitutive alterity’’ at the heart of any effort to educate. Neither, I think, can autonomy.



6. Compulsory Autonomy-promoting Education

Author(s): Anders Schinkel

Source: Educational Theory, Volume 60, No. 1, 2010, pages 97-116.

Introduction: I wonder about many things these days. I question how much of my self, my life, and the world I clearly see. I wonder if I adequately understand the events around me. And I am not quite sure if the commitments I have carried are efforts worth future reinvestment. These are not the meanderings of a lost soul or a self in midlife crisis; they are real wonders, noted doubts. And at the same time there is much that is precious and invigorating. I enjoy riding to work with our houseguest, Finbarr Sloane. This scholarly Irishman keeps up a running and intriguing conversation (with himself and others) about educational issues that matter. My wife, Michele Seipp, having quit the library profession, has begun to explore new territory for her last decade of paid work. When someone you love has reignited her love of life, it is reason to marvel. My two sons are out in the world, here and abroad, making powerful sense if not yet money. And I am thankful for the students and teachers whose education brings them to my graduate school classes or to the less traditional, professional development ‘‘Courage’’ retreats we offer. It was with these two senses of wonder (doubt and awe) that I approached, read, and reread Alice Pitt’s ‘‘On Having One’s Choice: Autonomy as Education’s Limit.’’ There is insight and understanding as well as some limitation and potential misdirection in that text. Pitt captures and underscores very real limitations and psychological dynamics in our educational, and more specifically our teacher preparation, processes. However at times her elaboration seems unduly truncated, and for that reason I have some doubts about its educational promise.



7. Sound, Presence, and Power: “Student Voice” in Educational Research and Reform

Author(s): Alison Cook-Sather

Source: Curriculum Inquiry, Volume 36, Issue 4, winter 2006, pages 360-390

Abstract: Every way of thinking is both premised on and generative of a way of naming that reflects particular underlying convictions. Over the last 15 years, a way of thinking has reemerged that strives to reposition students in educational research and reform. Best documented in Australia, Canada, England, and the United States, this way of thinking is premised on the following convictions: that young people have unique perspectives on learning, teaching, and schooling; that their insights warrant not only the attention but also the responses of adults; and that they should be afforded opportunities to actively shape their education. Although these convictions mean different things to different people and take different forms in practice, a single term has emerged to capture a range of activities that strive to reposition students in educational research and reform: “student voice.” In this discussion the author explores the emergence of the term “student voice,” identifies underlying premises signaled by two particular words associated with the term, “rights” and “respect,” and explores the many meanings of a word that surfaces repeatedly across discussions of student voice efforts but refers to a wide range of practices: “listening.” The author offers this discussion not as an exhaustive or definitive analysis but rather with the goal of looking across discussions of work that advocates, enacts, and critically analyzes the term “student voice.”



8. How Do We Know?: Students Examine Issues of Credibility with a Complicated Multimodal Web-based Text

Author(s): Mark Baildon & James S. Damico

Source: Curriculum Inquiry, Volume 39, Issue 2, March 2009, pages 265-285

Abstract: As reading continues to become governed by a spatial “logic of the image” rather than strictly a temporal or linear logic of written language (Kress, 2003), and readers increasingly engage with a range of Internet-based texts, a host of challenges ensue for educators and students alike. One of the most vexing of these challenges deals with discernments of credibility. Determining the credibility of multimodal texts, especially on/within the Internet with its “vast network of relations of credibility” (Burbules & Callister, 2000), is particularly challenging because these texts mix images, music, graphic arts, video, and print to make sophisticated claims supported by various forms or types of evidence. This article examines how a group of ninth-grade students grappled with issues of credibility after viewing the controversial Internet video, Loose Change, a well-documented and comprehensive multimedia account that argues the “real story” of September 11 was covered up by the U.S. government. Findings from the study highlight the range of knowledge and literacy practices students mobilized to “read” the video and the challenges they experienced reading and evaluating the video as a multimodal text. Implications of this work point to the need to consider epistemological issues and further develop tools that can support teachers and students in critically assessing multimodal texts.



9. The Meaning of Autonomy in Early Childhood Teacher Education

Author(s): Kathryn Castle

Source: Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, Volume 25, Issue 1, 2004, pages 3-10

Abstract: The term autonomy has multiple meanings based on diversity in theoretical views in current educational literature. Examples are given of multiple meanings of autonomy, and comparisons are made to the Piagetian view of autonomy as self-regulation implying separateness within community. A case is made for the relevance of autonomy as an educational aim. Implications are drawn for autonomy as an aim for early childhood teacher education based on a Piagetian view of autonomy.


10. Democracy and Moral Autonomy

Author(s): James L. Hylanda

Source: Irish Political Studies, Volume 26, Issue 4, December 2011, pages 427-437

Abstract: The focus of this paper is on the justificatory basis of democracy. The paper operates on two levels, theoretical and historical. On the theoretical level the author claims that many of the arguments put forward to justify democracy, such as that formulated by Dahl in ‘Democracy and its Critics’ based on his two principles of equality, although not without merit, suffer certain crucial weaknesses and do not, in fact, get at the real basis of the belief in the unique legitimacy of democracy. He goes on to argue that this legitimacy is grounded not simply in the positive egalitarian consequences expected from democracy, but rather is to be found in the moral autonomy of the human being. Further, he claims, this moral autonomy is itself rooted in what the author calls the Cartesian autonomy of reason. On the historical level he claims that, while Descartes was himself extremely conservative with regard to orthodox Christian belief and traditional structures of political authority, many self-styled followers of Descartes saw the autonomy of reason as implying a radical rejection of all ‘external’ authority, first in respect of religious belief, but also, then, with respect to the secular authority. The result was that within what Jonathan Israel refers to as the Radical Enlightenment’, there developed as early as the mid-seventeenth century a tradition of liberal and democratic radicalism, based explicitly on the Cartesian autonomy of reason and what was referred to as the ‘freedom to philosophise’. The author illustrates this with a brief account of the Dutch radical thinker Franciscus Van den Enden. He argues that if we posit moral autonomy as the basis of democratic legitimacy, this privileges one particular conception of democracy, namely deliberative democracy, as its paradigmatic form. Throughout the whole argument he gives a central role to the autonomy of reason as, in particular, it began to sweep across Europe with the influence of Cartesianism. It is possible that there are older egalitarian roots to modern democratic ideology or that democratic authority is grounded on democracy's epistemic properties. The author looks at these claims towards the end of the paper and concludes that the autonomy of the moral agent as based itself on the autonomy of human reason is the most plausible basis of the unique legitimacy of democracy.



11. Focus on The Student Teacher: The European Portfolio for Student Teachers of Languages (EPOSTL) as A Tool to Develop Teacher Autonomy

Author(s): Anja Burkerta & Klaus Schwienhorstb

Source: Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, Volume 2, Issue 3, 2008, pages 238-252

Abstract: This article discusses the European Portfolio for Student Teachers of Languages (EPOSTL), which was recently developed by an international project group at the European Centre for Modern Languages (ECML) in Graz, Austria. It describes the history, aims and structural components of the portfolio emphasising the need for a reflective tool in initial language teacher education. In view of the rising importance of the concept of learner autonomy in the recent history of language learning and teaching, an instrument which fosters reflection on the part of the student teacher entering his or her teacher education programme seems to be indispensable. Consisting mainly of more than 190 can-do descriptors relating to the core didactic competences a teacher should strive to attain, the EPOSTL also appears to provide a valuable tool for self-assessment. Under the close guidance of the teacher educator the descriptors will form springboards for discussions and assist the student teacher to become aware of his or her beliefs about and attitudes towards teaching. Seeing a high value in the use of the EPOSTL for professional development, the authors still voice some criticism such as the lack of a system of reference or the sole focus on didactic competences.



12. Autonomy, Agency and Education

Author(s): Nesta Devinea & Ruth Irwinb

Source: Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, Volume 2, Issue 3, 2008, pages 238-252

Abstract: In this paper the authors take up James Marshall's work on the individual and autonomy. Their suggestion is that although the liberal notion of the autonomous individual might give us a standard of reference for the freedom of persons, the liberal tradition also circumscribes that freedom by prescribing it both as an attribute of persons and as a necessity for persons to exercise, in the form of choice, even though the range of choice is in fact limited. Starting from an account of James Marshall and Colin Lankshear's respective work on the nature of the individual, and using Heidegger, Nietzsche, Merleau‐Ponty and others, they reintegrate the individual into society as it were, and finally, search for means of escape from the determinism of ‘governmentality’. Drawing on notions such as ‘technologies of the self’, hysteria and excess, integration of body and mind, individual and environment, subject and object, they describe the difficult, hesitant work of bringing existing parameters of thought and behaviour into consciousness. Some consequences for the relations of teachers and students within the school context are suggested.



13. Autonomy and Pluralism in the Education System: A Case Study of Spanish Public Schools in the International Context

Author(s): Miguel Ángel Sancho Gargalloa

Source: Journal of School Choice: International Research and Reform, Volume 7, Issue 1, 2013, pages 61-87

Abstract: As governments strive to improve outcomes in education, and respond to the needs of an ever more diverse population, autonomy has gained increased prominence in national and international spheres. In the context of education, autonomy refers to the decision-making capacity of a school, and to the manner and areas over which those decisions can be made. In this case study of the Spanish education system and policies, we examine the level of autonomy of public schools, producing insights applicable far beyond this country. We conduct a scrutiny of Constitutional, regulative, and international frameworks, as well as an examination of the latest figures from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development education indicators (with special focus on Spain and the United States). The data that emerges suggests that despite general declarations of autonomy, schools are granted very little decision-making capacity in practice. Regional decentralization of the system has not translated to the delegation of enough competences to schools, particularly in the areas of personal and resource management.



14. The Spiritual Dimension and Autonomy

Author(s): Christopher Cloudera

Source: International Journal of Children's Spirituality, Volume 3, Issue 1, 1998, pages 43-49

Abstract: Political authorities decide much of current educational reform and the teaching profession is expected to comply with an increasing number of demands issued by those in authority. This has a long tradition and serves to ensure that service to the state itself, or its manifestation as an economic entity, is prioritized. Because of this there is a tendency to disregard the immediate relationships within the school community, which serve as a basis for moral and spiritual development. Teachers’ autonomy and a greater respect for their vocational capacities are prerequisites for addressing the questions raised by the inclusion of spiritual concepts in education.



15. Autonomy as An Element in Chinese Educational Reform: A Case Study of English lessons in A Senior High School in Beijing

Author(s): J. Mark Halsteada & Chuanyan Zhua

Source: Asia Pacific Journal of Education, Volume 29, Issue 4, 2009, pages 443-456

Abstract: Recent educational reforms in China have emphasized “learner autonomy”, but this differs in crucial respects from the concept of “personal autonomy”, which is a central goal of western liberal education. The many changes that have resulted from the opening up policy in China in the last 30 years include what has been called “regulated individualism”, but moves towards individualism remain balanced by a recognition of interdependence and collectivism. Can autonomy take root in schools in these circumstances? The research reported in this article provides a snapshot of the situation in a senior high school in Beijing. It reveals that learner autonomy is currently hardly a reality at all in the classroom. Students show their desire for autonomy and manage the class activities for which they have responsibility with some degree of autonomy. The teacher also tends to accept the principle of learner autonomy, but finds her hands tied both by her own natural tendency to dominate the learning process (in accordance with traditional Chinese expectations of a teacher) and by the requirements of the University Entrance Examination.



16. Teaching Rhetorical Values and The Question of Student Autonomy

Author(s): Dennis A. Lynch

Source: Rhetoric Review, Volume 13, Issue 2, 1995, pages 350-370

Prelude: The question, should teachers bring their politics into the classroom, is a question that is vague and, in the final analysis,only useful as a scare-tactic. It may sound straightforward, but it quickly dissolves into a variety of more specific possible interpretations: Should a teacher insist that students adopt in their writing a particular political position under threat of failure; should a teacher encourage students to adopt a particular political position; should a teacher argue for a particular political position in class; should a teacher expose students to political positions that are contrary to those the students already hold; should a teacher encourage or permit students to express any and all of their beliefs and opinions, even those that other students might find offensive; should a teacher show students how to critically examine beliefs, political or otherwise, and ask students to critically examine their own beliefs; should a teacher raise the possibility that the beliefs we have come to hold are interconnected and symbolically charged in ways that may prevent us from straightforwardly examining them; should a teacher design assignments around controversial political issues and insist that students engage ;should a teacher avoid all references to specific political issues and train students to write clear, grammatically correct prose? And, of course, there are many other ways of hearing the question.



17. Autonomy and The Purposes of Schooling

Author(s): John Martin Rich

Source: Educational Philosophy and Theory, Volume 18, Issue 2, 1986, pages 34-41

Prelude: Autonomy has been advocated by diverse groups, from analytical philosophers to libertarians. Coons and Sugarman posit autonomy as the eventual goal of the child. The autonomous person, they claim, is intellectually and morally independent, a coordination of intellect and responsible action. The question is whether one is warranted in establishing autonomy as either a sole goal of schooling or even its chief goal. It will be shown that such a goal, though widely endorsed in some circles, is fraught with certain conceptual and policy problems. Instead of autonomy as a goal, an alternative purpose is introduced that is capable of fulfilling a set of essential criteria that the autonomy goal is incapable of satisfying. First, the concept of autonomy will be presented, then its problems, before an alternative purpose is presented.



第三辑:学生自主

1.论我国的公民自主意识及其培育

【作者】李永忠;林伯海

【机构】西南交通大学政治学院

【来源】《西南交通大学学报(社会科学版)》,201002期,第88-93

【摘要】充分发育的公民社会是现代国家实现社会文明的基石,而其发育需要成熟的公民自主意识作为内在动力。公民自主意识是公民参与社会事务的主动性和能动性的内在体现。而我国长期受集权主义政治模式的影响,公民自主意识缺乏,导致公民在社会事务管理中存在较强的官方依赖心理和志愿失灵、弃权渎责现象。只有完善公民意识教育政策,通过塑造公民人格、学校教育和社会引导及社会实践来激发公民主体意识、强化公民权责意识和参与意识,才能使公民养成理性成熟的自主意识,为我国公民社会的发展和社会的现代化提供内生动力。

【关键词】公民自主意识;主体意识;参与意识;权责意识



2.自主与正义——康德“自主性”政治哲学及其历史影响

【作者】申 巍

【机构】清华大学人文学院哲学系

【来源】《道德与文明》,201206期,第152-157

【摘要】作为现代道德哲学与政治哲学的重要意识起源,自主性是一个抽象而复杂的哲学概念。康德政治哲学的深层问题意识正源于“自主性”政治哲学的理论建构。康德的自主性政治哲学不仅在近代西方政治哲学谱系中具有极为重要的理论意义,同时也对西方现当代政治哲学研究产生了实质性的深远影响。

【关键词】自主性;康德;政治哲学



3.学习者自主模式下教师角色转换的哲学旨归

【作者】张育贤

【机构】山东交通学院

【来源】教育与教学研究,201101

【摘要】学习者自主是一种全新的学习模式,它的出现对传统的学习模式与教学模式带来了严峻的挑战,其成功的关键取决于顺利实现教师角色的转换。这种教师角色的革命性转换是以实现师生主体性价值、师生间民主平等的和谐关系,以及为实现人的全面发展创造条件为最终哲学旨归的。

【关键词】学习者自主;主体性;教师角色;哲学旨归



4.错位的调和——德沃金政治哲学中的自由、平等与自主

【作者】惠春寿

【机构】浙江大学哲学系

【来源】《政治思想史》,201301

【摘要】自由与平等是当代自由主义的两大核心价值,如何协调、安顿两者之间的冲突也随之成为自由主义理论家们需要解决的基本问题。罗纳德·德沃金试图通过两种不同方式来解决这一问题,然而他的解决方案预设了一种特殊的自由观。这种观念忽视了作为自由之基础的个人自主,错误地理解了自由与自由的价值。不仅如此,德沃金对平等作为至高价值的认定与论证,事实上也是以个人自主为基础的。因此,无论是自由还是平等,归根结底都源于自由主义对个人自主的根本承诺,德沃金的主张不过是对这三种价值的错位调和。

【关键词】自主性;德沃金;政治哲学;自由与平等



5.我国的自立人格与西方的独立性人格的区别

【作者】夏凌翔;黄希庭

【机构】西南大学心理学院

【来源】西南大学学报(社会科学版) 201201

【摘要】我国的自立人格与西方的独立性人格的区别是一个值得研究的课题。使用青少年学生自立人格量表、卡特尔16种人格因素测验中的独立性分量表、镶嵌图形测验以及内控/他控/机控量表的三次调查发现:(1)自立人格与16PF所测量的独立性人格以及场依存-场独立性均没有关系;(2)自立人格与内控呈正相关趋势,与他控、机控呈负相关趋势;自立人格与机控的负相关程度大于他控的。可以认为,自立人格与独立性人格是不同的人格构念,二者差异的关键在于自立人格涉及人际因素,并暗含相互依赖的因素。

【关键词】自立人格;独立性人格;相互依赖;人际因素



6.青少年自立人格的比较研究

【作者】韩小琼

【机构】嘉应学院心理健康教育与咨询中心

【来源】西南大学学报(社会科学版) 201201

【摘要】目的探讨青少年学生自立人格现状。方法采用青少年自立人格量表,对689名青少年学生进行调查,并在不同性别、年级间进行差异分析。结果:①人际责任(t=-3.65,P<0.01)、个人主动(t=-3.13,P<0.05)、个人开放(t=2.41,P<0.05)在性别上有显著差异;②人际主动(F=8.52P<0.01)、人际灵活(F=2.80P<0.05)、人际开放(F=3.34P<0.05)、个人责任(F=3.34P<0.05)、个人灵活(F=2.39P<0.05)在不同年级上有显著差异;③性别对自立人格主效应显著(F=4.36P<0.05),年级对自立人格主效应不显著(F=2.01P=0.076),性别和年级对自立人格交互效应显著(F=2.86P<0.05)。结论:性别、年级对青少年自立人格的发展存在一定的影响:女生得分高于男生;女生在初二、男生在高一时自立人格得分达到最高点。

【关键词】自立;自立人格;比较研究;青少年



7. 青少年自立人格及其影响因素的研究

【作者】韩小琼;郑雪

【机构】嘉应学院心理健康教育与咨询中心;华南师范大学心理应用研究中心

【来源】第十五届全国心理学学术会议论文摘要集,201211

【摘要】培养学生健全的人格,是现阶段的教育目标之一。青少年时期正是身心快速发展的关键期,对青少年学生来说,培养健全的人格显著尤为重要。自立人格是一种优秀的人格品质,是中华民族精神的精华之一。自立人格是一个完全中国化的概念,它的特征反映了中国传统文化对人的要求,具备自立人格的人能更适应中国的社会文化环境,自立人格反映了个体所具备的解决基本生存与发展问题的人格特征。

【关键词】自立人格;亲子依恋;同伴关系;师生关系



8.个人自主性与社会基本矛盾

【作者】张宝英;张群卿

【机构】烟台大学人文学院;山东大学哲学与社会发展学院

【来源】学术研究,201304

【摘要】个人自主性是建立在真实了解客观实际及其规律基础上的合理追求自己目的的能力。个人自主性状态是衡量人的发展的根本尺度。社会基本矛盾是人的本质力量的体现。在社会历史活动中,每个社会成员自主选择的过程体现为生产力决定生产关系的过程,体现为社会存在形式自然而然形成的过程。在一定生产力基础上,由个人自主选择形成的社会生产关系必然适合生产力状况。尊重个人自主性就是尊重社会基本矛盾运动规律,人类社会的"自然历史过程"是个人自主性实现的结果。

【关键词】个人自主性;社会基本矛盾;上层建筑



9.重申个人自主性:概念修正与规范建构

【作者】刘 擎

【机构】华东师范大学中国现代思想文化研究所

【来源】《学术月刊》,201009

【摘要】个人自主性是现代社会的核心理念之一,在近代启蒙理性主义的思想传统中得到张扬。理性是一种抽象的形式化能力,它在实践中的运用是对各种具体理由作出回应,但理性本身无法创造出实质性的理由。如果完全依靠人的理性能力来寻求"自我立法",那终将陷入无以自立的困境。从关系性的角度来重新理解个人的构成与自主性的概念,为克服启蒙理性主义的局限开放了新的可能。其核心论旨主张,个人与社会、历史和文化的诸种关系是实现个人自主性所依据的条件和资源。恰当理解的个人自主性,揭示了"原子化的个人""放任个人主义"的认知错误,为抑制价值规范上的主观任意性与极端怀疑论提供了可能。这一概念修正与规范重建的努力,通过清理自主性得以实现的条件和前提来重申这一理想,有助于复苏和强化它所蕴涵的道德与价值的规范力量,以此来抵御对现代性观念的误解和攻击,对于克服现代性困境的论题具有启发意义。

【关键词】个人自主性;价值规范;现代性



10.没有幻觉的个人自主性

【作者】刘 擎

【机构】华东师范大学中国现代思想文化研究所

【来源】《书城》,201110

【结论】个人自主性是现代性思想的一个重要方面,是一个值得捍卫的理想。它激发人的创造性,要求一种自我负责的精神,鼓励人们过更真诚、更充分和更具个性的生活。现代世界的许多成就与价值来自个人对率真性的追求,但是,这种理想(如同现代性的其他许多理想一样)也可能事与愿违地走向自己的反面,使自身陷人困境。自主的生活理想必须有所选择,选择意味着某些生活形式实际上高于别的,而对个人自我实现宽容的文化却回避了这些主张。如果完全依据唯我论,我们实际上无法形成可以判断高低好坏的价值标准。《率真性的伦理》一书的要旨在于指明,建基于唯我论的率真性是一个幻觉,如果率真性就是对我们自己真实,就是找回我们自己的存在之感受,那么,或许我们只能整体地实现它,倘若我们认识到这个情感把我们与一个更宽广的整体连接在一起的话,而只有通过将自我的构成理解为关系性的,理解为对超越自我之共同背景的依赖,我们才能恰当地理解和实践个人自主性的理想,才有可能克服对率真性的误解和滥用。

【关键词】自我负责;查尔斯·泰勒;率真性;伦理;马克斯·韦伯